Borderline personality disorder BPD is a complex psychiatric condition in which a person has difficulty experiencing her emotions and is often in a state of upheaval.
Definition Dissociative identity disorder DID is a severe condition in which two or more distinct identities, or personality states, are present in—and alternately take control of—an individual.
Some people describe this as an experience of possession. The person also experiences memory loss that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. DID is a disorder characterized by identity fragmentation rather than a proliferation of separate personalities.
The disturbance is not due to the direct psychological effects of a substance or of a general medical condition. DID was called multiple personality disorder untilwhen the name was changed to reflect a better understanding of the condition—namely, that it is characterized by a fragmentation, or splintering, of identity rather than by a proliferation, or growth, of separate identities.
As this once rarely reported disorder has become more common, the diagnosis has become controversial. Brain imaging studies, however, have corroborated identity transitions in some patients. DID reflects a failure to integrate various aspects of identity, memory, and consciousness into a single multidimensional self.
When in control, each personality state, or alter, may be experienced as if it has a distinct history, self-image and identity. Certain circumstances or stressors can cause a particular alter to emerge.
The various identities may deny knowledge of one another, be critical of one another or appear to be in open conflict. Possession-form identities often manifest as behaviors that appear as if a spirit or other supernatural being has taken control of the person.
Many possession states around the world are a normal part of a cultural or spiritual practice; these possession states become a disorder when they are unwanted, cause distress or impairment, and are not accepted as part of a cultural or religious practice.
Symptoms The following criteria must be met for an individual to be diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder: The individual experiences two or more distinct identities or personality states each with its own enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self.
Some cultures describe this as an experience of possession. The disruption in identity involves a change in sense of self, sense of agency, and changes in behavior, consciousness, memory, perception, cognition, and motor function.
Frequent gaps are found in memories of personal history, including people, places, and events, for both the distant and recent past. These recurrent gaps are not consistent with ordinary forgetting.
These symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Particular identities may emerge in specific circumstances. Transitions from one identity to another are often triggered by psychosocial stress.
In the possession-form cases of dissociative identity disorder, alternate identities are visibly obvious to people around the individual. People with DID may describe feeling that they have suddenly become depersonalized observers of their own speech and actions. Sometimes with DID experience dissociative fugues, where they discover they have traveled but have no recollection of the experience.
More than 70 percent of people with DID have attempted suicide, and self-injurious behavior is common among this population.Borderline personality disorder is a mental health condition that creates mood, behavioral, and relationship instability.
The symptoms of the disease have been described in medical literature for. A personality disorder is a mental disorder involving a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning and behaving. Menu. Patient Care & Health Info.
Quality Care. Find out why Mayo Clinic is the right place for your health care. This causes significant problems and limitations in relationships, social activities, work and school.
Posttraumatic stress disorder affects around 5% of men and 10% of women at some point during their life.
Up to one in three people who experience a traumatic event develop PTSD as a result. — National Health Service, UK  PTSD causes different people to react in very different ways, and it can. Dissociative identity disorder, once called multiple personality disorder, results in two or more split identities.
Learn more from WebMD about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of this complex. What causes personality disorders? Research suggests that genetics, abuse and other factors contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive, narcissistic or other personality disorders. People with borderline personality disorder, for example, had especially high rates of .
Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is a chronic (recurring frequently) emotional illness. A person with MPD plays host to two or more personalities (called alters). Each alter has its own unique style of viewing and understanding the world and may have its own name.
These distinct personalities.