Between the Gender Lines:
As women do not have cultural power, there is no version of hegemonic femininity to rival hegemonic masculinity. There are, however, dominant ideals of doing femininity, which favour White, heterosexual, middle-class cis-women who are able-bodied.
Minority women do not enjoy the same social privileges in comparison. Women who want to challenge this masculine logic, even by asking for a pay rise, are impeded from reaching their potential. Indigenous and other women of colour are even more disadvantaged.
Cultural variations of gender across time and place also demonstrate that gender change is possible. Transgender and Intersex Australians Nationally representative figures drawing on random samples do not exist for transgender people in Australia. The researchers think that transgender and intersex Australians either nominated themselves broadly as woman or men, and as either heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual or asexual.
Alternatively, transgender and intersex Australians may have declined to participate in the survey. American and British estimates are no more exact.
Smaller or specialised surveys on issues such as surveillance and tobacco estimate that between 0. Employers discriminate in tacit ways, which might manifest as gender bias leading managers to question how gender transition may impact on work productivity. Feminism has yet to fully embrace transgender inclusion as a feminist cause.
Transgender people have always lived in Australia. Read below to learn more about sistergirls, Aboriginal transgender women, and how Christianity attempted to displace their cultural belonging and femininity.
Girls with an enlarged clitoris and boys with a micro-penis are judged by doctors to have an ambiguous sex and might be operated on early in life. Others do not experience such trauma, and they feel more supported especially when parents and families are more open to discussing intersexuality rather than hiding the condition.
Much like transgender people, intersex people have also been largely ignored by mainstream feminism, which only amplifies their experience of gender inequality. Still, the notion of difference, of otherness, is central to the social organisation of gender.
As Judith Lorber and Susan Farrell argue: The shoes were impractical and difficult to walk in, but they were both a status symbol as well as a sign of masculinity and power.
In Western cultures, women did not begin wearing high-heeled shoes until the midth Century. Their introduction was not about social status or power, but rather it was a symptom of the increasing sexualisation of women with the introduction of cameras.
The Wodaabe nomads from Niger are a case in point. Wodaabe Niger Wodaabe men will dress up during a special ceremony in order to attract a wife. They wear make-up to show off their features; they wear their best outfits, adorned with jewellery; and they bare their teeth and dance before the single women in their village.
To the Western eye, these men may appear feminine, as Western culture associates make up and ornamental body routines with women.
This is another custom that is contrary to dominant models of gender in the West, which demand that women be more passive, and wait until a man approaches her for romantic or sexual attention.
They are traditionally considered to be sacred beings embodying both the feminine and masculine traits of all their ancestors and nature. They are chosen by their community to represent this tradition, and once this happens, they live out their lives in the opposite gender, and can also get married to someone of the opposite gender to their adopted gender.
These couples have sex together and they may also have sex with other partners of the opposite gender. If they have children, they are accepted into the Two Spirit household without social stigma.
The women do not have sexual relations, it is more of a family and economic arrangement. Human rights activists challenge this saying that because homosexuality is shrouded in secrecy, these women may not want to admit to sexual relationships; however, there is no empirical evidence to this effect.
It is permissible when an older woman has not borne a son, and she will marry a woman to bear her a male heir. The Lovedu of South Africa and the Igbo of Benin and Nigeria also practice a variation of female husband, where an independently wealthy woman will continue to be a wife to her male husband, but she will set up a separate home for her wife, who will bear her children.
The children of her wife remain her responsibility and they are not shunned. The female-husband tradition preserves patriarchal structure; without an heir, women cannot inherit land or property from their family, but if her wife bears a son, the female wife is allowed to carry on the family name and pass on inheritance to her sons.
Kathoey Ladyboys — Documentary from faithjuliana on Vimeo. Kathoey women have become a large tourism attraction which stands at odd with their own legal struggles as well as those of other LGBTQIA people in Thailand.
She has a Masters degree and is a successful business woman.This book covers the gamut of topics related to gender and consumer culture.
Changing gender roles have forced scholars and practitioners to re-examine some . Gender identity haunts every aspect of our lives, dictating the outcomes of our conversations, our workplaces, our relationships – even our bath products. Before most infants are named, they are assigned a sex based on the appearance of their external genitalia by a third party.
These decisions are dolled out in a typically binary fashion, with no expectations for ambiguity. This book is a fascinating collection of just about everything one could imagine about male and female differences.
Every women and gender studies academic program on the planet should have a copy of this book in their department's library. Housework is not work. Sex work is not work. Emotional work is not work. Why? Because they don’t take effort? No, because women are supposed to provide them uncompensated, out of the goodness of our hearts.
posted by sciatrix ( comments total) users marked this as a favorite. The name Nigeria was suggested by British journalist Flora Shaw in the s. She referred to the area as Nigeria, after the Niger River, which dominates much of the country's landscape.
An enduring emotional, romantic, sexual or affectional attraction to individuals of a particular gender; Orientation may or may not be expressed in behavior.