Although he never personally took part in military campaigns, he boasted of his successes in the prefaces to his laws and had them commemorated in art. The column was erected in the Augustaeum in Constantinople in in honour of his military victories.
It marked the final end of the Roman empire; the establishment of the new, Byzantine empire; the beginning of Western Europe's unique position within the civilizations of the Old World; and made possible the spread of Islam and the rise of the Franks.
Although this lecture concentrates on the role played by the Gothic Wars in Justinian's reign, there is a great deal more to be known about this remarkable man and about Theodora, his even more remarkable wife. Procopius, a prominent historian of Justinian's time has left a Secret History of those days, a book which is rather scandalous and may even be true Map of the Mediterranean World in 1.
The empire was united under the Eastern emperor in theory, Justinian tried to make it so in fact.
His armies invaded the Vandal, Ostrogothic, and Visigothic kingdoms in turn, and, in a series of bitter warsreconquered much of the Mediterranean lands of the West. At the time, it seemed as if he had very little choice in the matter.
In theory at least, the Germanic kings ruled as viceroys of the Eastern emperors. There was a difficult problem in that the Germans were Arians, practicing and preaching a form of Christianity considered heretical by the established Roman Church.
The Vandals were the most zealous of the Arians and were quick to seize orthodox churches in order to convert them into Arian places of worship. The Vandals were so few in number that they resorted to terror in order to keep their subjects in order.
The Vandalic kingdom became a police state in which orthodox Christians were striped of property, rights, and even freedom and life.
When a delegation of orthodox Christians from Africa appealed to Justinian to fulfill his role as defender of the faith, he decided that the time had come to resolve the peculiar situation and bring the West back under real Roman control.
But the Westerners did not want a return of Roman taxation, Roman justice, and imperial interference in their affairs. Consequently, even the Roman inhabitants of some areas joined their German overlords in attempting to fight back the eastern armies determined to restore a situation that many people simply did not want to see restored.
The Easterners did not want to waste money defending these western conquests and were impoverished by the cost of these wars. One should note, however that even when he was sending tribute in gold to the Persians and spending immense sums in the Gothic Wars, Justinian still had enough money to embark on an unprecedented building program.
Justinian's dreams of conquest have long ago been forgotten by most people. Sophy that still dominates the skyline of Istanbul, the former Constantinople, and his project of collecting and codifying the scattered laws, imperial edicts, decisions of the early Roman Senate, and opinions of learned jurists and organizing them into a written law code.
Centuries later, this code, The Corpus Iuris Civilis was "rediscovered" in the West and sparked the growth of a legal profession that established the bases for many of the modern world's systems of justice and law. Map of the Mediterranean World in When Justinian died in and new invaders entered the west, the eastern empire did very little to stop them.
Neither westerners nor easterners had any further interest in restoring the empire. Although committed to the idea of a Roman empire, Justinian recognized that his realms were basically Greek and that the imperial administration would be more effective, if the fact were recognized.
Once the government stopped forcing the use of the Latin language and Roman institutions upon its people, the Eastern empire rapidly became more Eastern in its customs and outlook.
In the course of the sixth century, the other classical civilizations recovered from the barbarians the lands they had lost in the fifth. The Sui dynasty of China reunited North and South China bythe Persians recovered the Iranian plateau by ; and byHarsha has established a new Indian empire.
Only in the Mediterranean did the wars of reconquest fail. Western Europe was the only part of a classical empire to fall permanently under barbarian control.
The continuity of imperial institutions was broken only in Western Europe.Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire, and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire".
Lecture 20 Charlemagne and the Carolingian Renaissance , Charlemagne's reign was marked by almost continual warfare. Because Charlemagne's armies were always fighting, he began to give his warriors land so they could support and equip themselves. crowned by God, the great and peaceful emperor of the Romans." This was an extremely.
Justinian created a set of laws called the Justinian Code. This code said that the emperor made all of the laws and interpreted the laws as well. This code said that the emperor made all of the laws and interpreted the laws as well.
Procopius’s three works – The Wars, the adulatory Buildings, and the invective Secret History – are the best sources on the reign of the Emperor Justinian. Under Justinian and his wife Theodora, the Roman Empire reached its height as it reclaimed territories in North Africa and Europe previously lost to the Vandals, Visigoths and Ostrogoths.
The reign of Justinian was an extremely significant period. It marked the final end of the Roman empire; the establishment of the new, Byzantine empire; the beginning of Western Europe's unique position within the civilizations of the Old World; and made possible the spread of Islam and the rise of the Franks.
The nearly forty-year reign of Emperor Justinian I (born ; reign –65) heralded extensive territorial expansion and military success, along with a new synthesis of Greco-Roman and Christian culture seen at all levels of Byzantine culture.