By Saul McLeodupdated In social learning theory, Albert Bandura agrees with the behaviorist learning theories of classical conditioning and operant conditioning. However, he adds two important ideas: Behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. Observational Learning Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways.
Conditions for observational learning Attention If an organism is going to learn anything from a model, he or she must be paying attention to it and the behavior it exhibits.
For instance, if the observer is sleepy, ill, or distracted, he or she will be less likely to learn the modeled behavior and imitate it at a later date.
Learning Theories and Transfer of Learning. There are lots of different learning theories that can be used to help guide a teaching/learning process. Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. It is a form of social learning which takes various forms, based on various processes. In humans, this form of learning seems to not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a social model such as a parent, sibling, friend, or teacher with surroundings.. . Paul Andersen explains how the behavior of various organisms is shaped by natural selection. The action of phototropism and the timing of photoperiodism .
Bandura and others have shown that humans pay more attention to models that are attractive, similar to them, or prestigious and are rewarded for their behaviors. This explains the appeal that athletes have on the behavior of young children and that successful Observational learning have on college students.
Unfortunately, this aspect of modeling can also be used in detrimental ways. For example, if young children witness gang members Observational learning status or money, they may imitate those behaviors in an effort to gain similar rewards.
Retention The second requirement of observational learning is being able to remember the behavior that was witnessed. If the human or animal does not remember the behavior, there is a less than probable chance that they will imitate it.
Reproduction This requisite of behavior concerns the physical and mental ability of the individual to copy the behavior he or she observed. For instance, a young child may observe a college basketball player dunk a ball.
Later, when the child has a basketball, he or she may attempt to dunk a ball just like the college player. However, the young child is not nearly as physically developed as the older college player and, no matter how many times he or she tries, will not be able to reach the basket to dunk the ball.
An older child or an adult might be able to dunk the ball but likely only after quite a bit of practice. Similarly, a young colt observes another horse in the herd jump over the creek while running in the pasture. He simply was not big enough or did not have long enough legs to clear the water.
Motivation Perhaps the most important aspect of observational learning involves motivation. If the human or animal does not have a reason for imitating the behavior, then no amount of attention, retention, or reproduction will overcome the lack of motivation.
Bandura identified several motivating factors for imitation.
These include knowing that the model was previously reinforced for the behavior, being offered an incentive to perform, or observing the model receiving reinforcement for the behavior. These factors can also be negative motivations. For instance, if the observer knew that the model was punished for the behavior, was threatened for exhibiting the behavior, or observed the model being punished for the behavior, then the probability of mimicking the behavior is less.
Applications of observational learning Modeling has been used successfully in many therapeutic conditions. Many therapists have used forms of modeling to assist their patients to overcome phobias.
For example, adults with claustrophobia may observe a model in a video as they move closer and closer to an enclosed area before entering it.
Once the model reaches the enclosed area, for instance a closet, he or she will open the door, enter it, and then close the door. The observer will be taught relaxation techniques and be told to practice them anytime he or she becomes anxious while watching the film.
The end result is to continue observing the model until the person can enter the closet himself or herself.Definition. Observational learning, also called social learning theory, occurs when an observer’s behavior changes after viewing the behavior of a model. Learning Theories and Transfer of Learning.
There are lots of different learning theories that can be used to help guide a teaching/learning process.
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Almost all children engage in observational learning throughout their childhoods. Observational learning simply refers to the learning that is achieved through witnessing the behavior and actions.
STROBE Statement—checklist of items that should be included in reports of observational studies. Item No Recommendation Title and abstract 1 (a) Indicate the study’s design with a commonly used term in the title or the abstract (b) Provide in the abstract an informative and balanced summary of what was done and what was found Introduction Background/rationale 2 Explain the scientific.
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