I was suspicious that the unique conflicts of interests inherent in the relationship between the golf media and Augusta National Golf Club would create a stunting of the coverage of this major story and, unfortunately, my concerns were more than warranted. Before I get into how CBS specifically blew it on this saga, let me first provide the details on what actually happened. While leading the tournament on Friday, Tiger hit what appeared to be a perfect third shot into the par 5 15th green until it hit the flag stick and caromed off the green and into the pond in front of the hole. It was a crushingly bad break even before the chaos that the ensuing chain of events would create overnight because it turned a probable birdie into a situation where he would have to struggle for a bogie.
Risk and Reality is a joint project of the U.
Department of Education ED. All material in this document is in the public domain and may be used or reproduced without permission from DHHS or the authors. Citation of the source is appreciated. The complicity of substance abuse in serious social ills such as crime, domestic violence, and traffic injuries is well established.
Recently, however, another threat has come to the attention of the public. This is the threat to children born to women who abuse alcohol and other drugs during their pregnancy. Experts now estimate that one-half to three-quarters of a million infants are born each year who have been exposed to one or more illicit drugs in utero.
The onset of the crack epidemic during the s gave rise to a number of rather dramatic articles in the press that often presented an image of drug-exposed infants and children as "hopeless" members of a "lost generation" Toufexis ; Norris These articles, based largely on anecdotal accounts, helped to fuel a number of misperceptions.
There are an ever-increasing number of drug-exposed children who will in time overrun Head Start programs, early elementary classrooms, and social service agencies. There are permanent neurological, developmental, and behavioral consequences that are directly attributable to prenatal drug exposure.
Preschools and schools are unprepared to effectively control and educate children who were prenatally exposed to drugs.
As a result of these portraits of children with intractable deficits, Head Start and public school staff have grown concerned about the unknown numbers of drug-exposed children who might enter their classrooms. In fact, teachers and administrators report increasing numbers of children who lack social skills and have difficulty keeping pace with routine demands.
Some children are persistently withdrawn; others are prone to sudden episodes of violence. Primed by inaccurate media reports, educators have begun attributing these behaviors, as well as a wide range of other behaviors and developmental delays, to the effects of prenatal drug exposure.
Although prenatal drug exposure has captured a great deal of public attention, prenatal exposure to alcohol is more widespread and has perhaps an even more serious impact.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 60 percent of women of childbearing age consume alcoholic beverages despite the fact that alcohol consumption during pregnancy is implicated in a wide range of birth defects and developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, physical abnormalities, and visual and auditory impairments.
As they assess the threat that prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs presents to children and schools, policy makers and practitioners must separate myth from fact.
The practice of labeling children should also be avoided since it can lead teachers and parents to have diminished expectations for educational success. Finally, educators and parents need assistance in creating an educational environment that will enable children to fulfill their potential.
EDC to address the needs of administrators and teachers for accurate, up-to-date information on the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs. This report also examines what is known about other risk factors that may amplify these effects or produce similar consequences.
The first chapter addresses what the research suggests about the short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The second chapter discusses environmental factors which, by themselves or in combination with the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs, can affect a child's development.
The third chapter explores the implications for education in preschool and primary grades and describes specialized programs that serve children identified as having been prenatally exposed to alcohol or other drugs, as well as the behavioral and developmental characteristics these children display.
Finally, this report sums up the central findings and suggests ways that this information can guide the development of strategies, techniques, and materials to help teachers and administrators provide children at risk with appropriate and effective educational experiences.
This chapter contains five major sections. It begins with a discussion of some important methodological issues. A second section examines data on the prevalence of prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs.
A third section summarizes the current research on the effects of prenatal exposure to five widely used substances: Finally, the relationship between maternal use of alcohol and other drugs and the risk and developmental consequences of preterm and small-for-gestational-age SGA birth is examined.
This chapter ends with some general conclusions on the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. Some of the methodological challenges include finding an appropriate sample. Toxicologic assessments can result in false positives or fail to reveal alcohol or other drug use because those substances have metabolized Mayes et al.
Researchers frequently fail to base their prevalence estimates on samples representative of the general population Mayes et al.Thoroughbred Cycles by Mark Cramer raises the bar to Form handicapping.
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