For the purpose of this Convention, the term "torture" means any act by which severe pain or sufferingwhether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him, or a third person, information or a confessionpunishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in, or incidental to, lawful sanctions. It appears to exclude: Some professionals in the torture rehabilitation field believe that this definition is too restrictive and that the definition of politically motivated torture should be broadened to include all acts of organized violence.
First, the police continue to misapply the "no-crime" or "unfounding" criteria. Studies by Kelly et al. Rumney notes that some officers seem to "have fixed views and expectations about how genuine rape victims should react to their victimization". He adds that "qualitative research also suggests that some officers continue to exhibit an unjustified scepticism of rape complainants, while others interpret such things as lack of evidence or complaint withdrawal as 'proof' of a false allegation".
Rumney's second conclusion is that it is impossible to "discern with any degree of certainty the actual rate of false allegations" because many of the studies of false allegations have adopted unreliable or untested research methodologies.
He argues, for instance, that in addition to their small sample size, the studies by Maclean and Stewart used questionable criteria to judge an allegation to be false.
MacLean deemed reports "false" if, for instance, the victim did not appear "dishevelled" and Stewart, in one instance, considered a case disproved, stating that "it was totally impossible to have removed her extremely tight undergarments from her extremely large body against her will".
Lisak stated that many of the stats are misleading upon investigation and "when the sources of these estimates are examined carefully it is clear that only a fraction of the reports represent credible studies and that these credible studies indicate far less variability in false reporting rates.
Kanin of Purdue University investigated the incidences of false rape allegations made to the police in one small urban community in the Midwest United States population 70, between and He states that unlike in many larger jurisdictions, this police department had the resources to "seriously record and pursue to closure all rape complaints, regardless of their merits".
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He further states each investigation "always involves a serious offer to polygraph the complainants and the suspects" and "the complainant must admit that no rape had occurred.
She is the sole agent who can say that the rape charge is false". After reviewing the police files, Kanin categorized the false accusations into three broad motivations: This categorization was supported by the details of complainant recantations and other documentation of their cases.
No polygraphs were used, the investigations were the sole responsibility of a ranking female officer, and a rape charge was only counted as false under complainant recantation. In this sample, the motivations mentioned above were roughly evenly split between alibi and revenge, with only one case characterized as attention-seeking.
He states, "Kanin's article on false allegations is a provocative opinion piece, but it is not a scientific study of the issue of false reporting of rape. It certainly should never be used to assert a scientific foundation for the frequency of false allegations.
The department classified reports as false which the complainant later said were false, but Lisak points out that Kanin's study did not scrutinize the police's processes or employ independent checkers to protect results from bias.
These procedures include the "serious offer", in this department, of polygraph testing of complainants, which is viewed as a tactic of intimidation that leads victims to avoid the justice process  and which, Lisak says, is "based on the misperception that a significant percentage of sexual assault reports are false".
The reliability of these findings may be somewhat bolstered by the fact that the police appeared to record the details and circumstances of the fabrications. Rumney questions the reliability of Kanin's study stating that it "must be approached with caution". He argues that the study's most significant problem is Kanin's assumption "that police officers abided by departmental policy in only labeling as false those cases where the complainant admitted to fabrication.
He does not consider that actual police practice, as other studies have shown, might have departed from guidelines. Incorrect assumptions about false rape allegations increases the likelihood that a person who reports rape will be blamed or disbelieved.
As a result, the people commonly had a difficult time believing someone they know or like is a rapist, and this could contribute to the idea that the person who reported the rape is at fault.
False stories tend to be quick and straightforward with few details or complex interactions, and usually involve only vaginal intercourse. Some behaviors associated with lying by juries is actually typical of true rapes, including kissing or a previous relationship with the rapist.Inspector Goole - A representative, supposedly, of the local police force, sent to investigate Eva Smith/Daisy Renton’s barnweddingvt.com Inspector asks all the Birlings, and Gerald, questions about Eva/Daisy.
It seems that the Inspector knows the answer to everything he asks, but wants the family to admit to various instances of wrongdoing. A new addition to the captivating Inspector Sejer series, the first since The Caller, from Norway’s finest crime writer Carmen and Nicolai failed to resuscitate their son, Tommy, after finding him floating in .
One investigation will be conducted by Detective Inspector (DI) Jake Bullet. Jake has been a police officer for a long time and is proud of his reputation for securing convictions even in cases with little or no evidence to go on. Free Police Exam Practice Questions.
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Jun 26, · Strategic Counterintelligence - What Is It and What Should We Do About It? [e] One relatively recent example is the espionage case against suspected Chinese agent Katrina Leung, which resulted in a plea bargain in with no jail time, a $10, fine, and 10 debriefing sessions with Leung about her interactions with the Chinese.