# Write an essay on income and cross elasticities of demand

Students will be able to identify and discuss their own career aspirations or relevant skills and knowledge and how they impact on others. With the help of the point method, it is easy to point out elasticity at any point along a demand curve. Suppose that the straight line demand curve DC in Figure 3 is 6 centimeters.

The elasticity of demand at each point can be known with the help of the above method. Let point N be in the middle of the demand curve. So elasticity of demand at point. We arrive at the conclusion that at the mid-point on the demand curve, the elasticity of demand is unity. Moving up the demand curve from the mid-point, elasticity becomes greater.

When the demand curve touches the K-axis, elasticity is infinity.

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Ipso facto, any point below the mid-point towards the X-axis will show inelastic demand. Elasticity becomes zero when the demand curve touches the X axis. We have studied the measurement of elasticity at a point on a demand curve.

But when elasticity is measured between two points on the same demand curve, it is known as arc elasticity. In the words of Prof. The area between P and M on the DD curve in Figure 4 is an arc which measures elasticity over a certain range of price and quantities.

On any two points of a demand curve, the elasticity coefficients are likely to be different depending upon the method of computation.

Consider the price-quantity combinations P and M as given in Table 2. Thus the point method of measuring elasticity at two points on a demand curve gives different elasticity coefficients because we used a different base in computing the percentage change in each case. The formula for price elasticity of demand at the mid-point C in the arc PM on the demand curve is: The closer the two points P and M are, the more accurate is the measure of elasticity on the basis of this formula.

If the two points which form the arc on the demand curve are so close that they almost merge into each other, the numerical value of arc elasticity equals the numerical value of point elasticity.

The Total Outlay Method: Marshall evolved the total outlay, or total revenue or total expenditure method as a measure of elasticity. By comparing the total expenditure of a purchaser both before and after the change in price, it can be known whether his demand for a good is elastic, unity or less elastic. Total outlay is price multiplied by the quantity of a good purchased: This is explained with the help of the demand schedule in Table 3. Demand is elastic, when with the fall in price the total expenditure increases and with the rise in price the total expenditure decreases.

Table 3 shows that when the price falls from Rs. When with the fall or rise in price, the total expenditure remains unchanged; the elasticity of demand is unity.

This is shown in the table when with the fall in price from Rs. Demand is less elastic if with the fall in price, the total expenditure falls and with the rise in price the total expenditure rises.

In Table 3 when the price falls from Rs.

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Figure 5 illustrates the relation between elasticity of demand and total expenditure on the DD1 demand curve. The rectangles show total expenditure: Total expenditure rises as price falls, in the elastic range of demand, i. Total expenditure falls as price falls in the inelastic range, i. The conclusion is that price elasticity of demand refers to a movement along a specific demand curve.

Table 4 summarizes these relationships: Total Outlay Method can also be explained with the help of Figure Importance of the Concept of Price Elasticity: The concept of elasticity is of great practical importance in the formulation and understanding of a number of economic policies and problems.

In the Determination of Monopoly Price: A monopolist while fixing the price for his product takes into consideration its elasticity of demand. If the demand for his product is elastic, he will profit more by fixing a low price.

In case the demand is less elastic, he is in a position to fix a higher price. Similarly, a producer under monopolistic competition has to study the degree of elasticity of demand in pricing his product.is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her.

Box and Cox () developed the transformation. Estimation of any Box-Cox parameters is by maximum likelihood. Box and Cox () offered an example in which the data had the form of survival times but the underlying biological structure was of hazard rates, and the transformation identified this. If cross elasticity of demand is a negative number the goods will becomplementary products, meaning and increase in the price of good A will lead to adecrease in demand for good B (and vice versa). An example of this would befountain pens and ink cartridges.

If the change in the quantity demanded is greater than 1 the demand is elastic. Elasticity of demand is calculated by ED=quantity demanded/decrease in price. If you reduce the price of milk by 6%, and that causes an increase of quantity demanded by 9% the demand for milk is elastic (ED/ = ).

Explain what is meant by the terms price elasticity, income elasticity and cross elasticity of demand and discuss the main determinants of each of these. Discuss the importance of each of these to the decision making process within a typical business. Explain what is meant by the terms price elasticity, income elasticity and cross elasticity of demand and discuss the main determinants of each of these.3/5(1).

 Essay on the Price Elasticity of Demand The most useful definition of the term as a noun seems to be an extremely liquid asset, measured in a standard unit of account and capable with certainty of discharging debts expressed in that unit. As applied to the United States at the present time, this definition includes in money the circulating stock of metallic small change, Federal Reserve Notes and other paper currency, and also the stock of commercial bank deposits with checking privileges. Where Outstanding CAREERS Get Started The formula for cross elasticity of demand is percentage change in: Refer to the diagrams. Step 1 - I'm interested in... As used since, the term has been focused primarily on the real exchange rate. Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Elasticity of Demand — Essay Sample Elasticity of demand only deals with one good, but Cross-price elasticity deals with two commodities. Income elasticity deals with income and quantity demanded.
Presentation National High School – SCHEME OF WORK /