Argumentative work bases itself on establishing a position and defending it, as well as taking the opposing argumentation into consideration.
James Popham Rubrics have the potential to make enormous contributions to instructional quality—but first we have to correct the flaws that make many rubrics almost worthless.
Rubrics are all the rage these days. It's difficult to attend an educational conference without running into relentless support for the educational payoffs of rubrics.
Indeed, the term itself seems to evoke all sorts of positive images. Rubrics, if we believe their backers, are incontestably good things.
But for many educators, rubrics inspire a series of questions. What are rubrics, and where did they come from? What is an educationally appropriate role for rubrics? Why do so many current rubrics fail to live up to their promise as guides for both teachers and students?
What should we do to make rubrics better? The Rudiments of Rubrics As used today, the term rubric refers to a scoring guide used to evaluate the quality of students' constructed responses—for example, their written compositions, oral presentations, or science projects.
A rubric has three essential features: Evaluative criteria are used to distinguish acceptable responses from unacceptable responses. The criteria will obviously vary from rubric to rubric, depending on the skill involved. For instance, when evaluating written compositions, teachers often use such evaluative criteria as organization, mechanics, word choice, and supporting details.
Evaluative criteria can either be given equal weight or be weighted differently. Quality definitions describe the way that qualitative differences in students' responses are to be judged.
For instance, if mechanics is an evaluative criterion, the rubric may indicate that to earn the maximum number of points for mechanics, a student's composition should contain no mechanical errors.
The rubric must provide a separate description for each qualitative level. This means that if four different levels of quality are assigned to a written composition's organization, the rubric provides descriptions for each of those levels.
A scoring strategy may be either holistic or analytic.
Using a holistic strategy, the scorer takes all of the evaluative criteria into consideration but aggregates them to make a single, overall quality judgment.
An analytic strategy requires the scorer to render criterion-by-criterion scores that may or may not ultimately be aggregated into an overall score. The Roots of Rubrics The original meaning of rubric had little to do with the scoring of students' work. The Oxford English Dictionary tells us that in the midth century, rubric referred to headings of different sections of a book.
This stemmed from the work of Christian monks who painstakingly reproduced sacred literature, invariably initiating each major section of a copied book with a large red letter.
Because the Latin word for red is ruber, rubric came to signify the headings for major divisions of a book. A couple of decades ago, rubric began to take on a new meaning among educators. Measurement specialists who scored students' written compositions began to use the term to describe the rules that guided their scoring.Introduction.
State your point of view and/or present your persuasive argument. Thesis: Competitive swimming is a great alternative to other youth sports.
Body Paragraph 1. Introduce your primary persuasive argument and provide supporting details. Best professional online essay writer company is at your service.
We help students write academic essays and papers from scratch in just a few clicks, offering perfect quality and . Fifth graders were busy writing acrostic poems on small posters.
One girl wrote a school spirit poem, with the first letter of each line spelling out the school name: S for "super," N for "nice," and so on. One of the supporting details include persuasive language that explains the reasoning behind the position in the topic sentence.
Writing. The Australian Curriculum: English requires students to be taught a variety of forms of writing at school. The three main text types (previously called genres) that are taught are imaginative writing (including narrative writing), informative writing and persuasive writing.
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